2024-05 pre or co processor?

You pick your frame of reference and you pays your money, as they say!

Which way should we all be going these days? The good old precompiler, since the beginning of time, or the modern sleek coprocessor? This month, I will show you what they both do, what they do the same, what they do differently, and the pros and cons of both!

COBOL For All!

Yep, this newsletter is *just* about COBOL. Sorry if you use JAVA, Ruby, Python, or CosyPinkTeabags I stick with a language that works on computers so big you cannot lift ‘em!

In the Beginning…

Many, many moons ago, the great precompiler was launched. The problem was that Structured Query Language (SQL) is not COBOL in any way shape or form, but companies needed a way to integrate SQL code into COBOL code. The mainframe world had had this problem before with CICS, where the elegant solution was a CICS translator that ran through the code, removed all the special CICS calls, and replaced them with correctly formed COBOL calls. All done under the covers so that the application programmer did not have to know, or do, anything. CICS also now supports the integrated CICS translator by the way.

SQL was More Complicated

Naturally, the abilities in SQL caused some headaches… The syntax checking required the use of TABLE DECLARES (Still optional to this day, which I find astonishing!) To generate executable code the system had to do two things:

  1. Replace the EXEC SQL with comments and then calls to Assembler routines with parameters that listed out the SQL statement to be executed and all of the host variables involved. It also created a CONTOKEN or Consistency token that Db2 uses to check that any given load module “fits” to the given Package (DBRM) at run time.
  2. Output a DBRM, also with the CONTOKEN within it, so that then the PACKAGE/PLAN could be bound into an executable object. Every statement in the package matched the COBOL assembler calls one to one. At execution time, if the CONTOKEN in the package did not match the CONTOKEN in the load module, you would get a nasty error, typically an SQLCODE -805 with one of five sub-types, as something is wrong somewhere!

The Problem?

At the point where the precompiler was run, *no* COBOL had been compiled so any use of COPY books caused syntax errors – here the EXEC SQL INCLUDE jumped in to help *but* for, some unknown reason, they did not implement a REPLACING syntax like COPY has… This meant that the INCLUDEd code was not 100% the same as your “normal” COPY book – Very annoying!

Coprocess This!

This situation caused problems, and after a few years IBM launched the coprocessor which is basically the IBM COBOL compiler with the precompiler bolted within. This gave two immediate benefits:

  1. Simpler JCL (No precompiler step anymore!)
  2. Simpler COBOL copy book management as the COPY syntax worked fine!

So Why are We Not *All* Using the Coprocessor Today?

Well, as always, the devil is in the detail. The one major stopper I have seen is Db2 columns defined as “FOR BIT DATA”. Now, in the normal COBOL world, this just means “no code page conversion please.” The data is quite probably hexadecimal and will be completely mangled if it gets a code page conversion! What you actually get depends on what you are doing but it is quite easy to get an SQLCODE -333.

Unicode – EBCDIC – ASCII

The triumvirate of pain! If I had a dollar for every file transfer I have received that was originally EBCDIC and got ASCII transferred… but I digress!

There is a Fix!

There are two solutions here:

  1. Use a DECLARE VARIABLE in the code to “inform” the Compiler *not* to do a code page conversion when this COBOL host variable is being processed. This is naturally more work for the programmer and “dangerous” too, as it is another “point of failure” that never existed before! This scares people – we all hate change after all.
  2. Use NOSQLCCSID in the COBOL coprocessor parameters. This is recommended as the easiest way to stay plug compatible with the precompiler. Naturally, at some point, it will be time to bite the bullet and do the code change required!

The DECLARE you might need looks like this:

exec sql                                          
   declare :PACKAGE-CONTOKEN variable for bit data
end-exec

The problem is normally caused by INSERT and UPDATE processing. Just SELECT appears to always work fine in my tests, (I created an EBCDIC table and a UNICODE table and then did multiple Inserts and Selects with hex data). However, your data constellation might well be different from mine – Always test first!

Bottom Line

If you are not using FOR BIT DATA you have no problem!

Here’s a little SQL to show you where you have any columns with FOR BIT DATA in your system:

SELECT SUBSTR(STRIP(TBCREATOR) CONCAT '.' CONCAT STRIP(TBNAME)
            , 1 , 32) AS TABLE_NAME                          
     , NAME           AS COL_NAME                            
FROM SYSIBM.SYSCOLUMNS                                       
WHERE FOREIGNKEY = 'B'                                        
ORDER BY 1 , 2                                               
FOR FETCH ONLY                                               
WITH UR                                                      
;

JCL Changes Required

To get the Coprocessor up and running I just added these two lines into my SYSOPTF for COBOL 6.3:                            

,CODEPAGE(1141),NOSQLCCSID                            
,SQL("APOSTSQL ATTACH(CAF) COMMA DATE(ISO) TIME(ISO)")

Notice the NOSQLCCSID so I do not have to do any code changes!

Naturally, the STEPLIB must be enhanced:    

//STEPLIB   DD DISP=SHR,DSN=IGY630.SIGYCOMP    
//          DD DISP=SHR,DSN=DSND1A.SDSNEXIT.DD10
//          DD DISP=SHR,DSN=DSND1A.SDSNLOAD

And there are two new DD cards:

//DBRMLIB   DD DISP=SHR,DSN=SE.MDB2VNEX.TDBRM(COCOMP)
//SYSTERM   DD SYSOUT=*

That’s It!

All in all, I think if you are still using the precompiler you should take some time to migrate over to the coprocessor as it makes the modules much smaller and, by default, faster!

Faster? I Hear you Shout

Well, what the coprocessor also does, is completely remove all SQL based working storage and, most importantly, the PERFORM on the 1st call of the SQL-INITIAL section. Now the precompiler is clever but it is not Einstein! When the very first SQL gets called, this section is performed which defines in memory *all* the SQL in the program. So, let’s say you have a program with 1,000 SQLs. You are only using one of them, but for that one call all 1,000 working storage areas will be initialized through DSNHADDR and DSNHADD2 calls using the PLIST blocks. It is fast I know, but it is also just overhead!

Another Bonus!

Plus, if your COBOL is passing host variables through linkage section usage and the address changes between calls then you *must* currently reset the SQL-INIT-FLAG to zero *every* time… With the coprocessor you do not have to do that anymore – Another win!

Just the Facts Ma’am

In one of my test programs the precompiler generated:

1674 lines of working storage

232 lines of SQL-INITIAL code

For every EXEC SQL (31 in total) that was commented out a

PERFORM SQL-INITIAL UNTIL SQL-INIT-DONE
CALL 'DSNHLI2' USING SQL-PLIST11       
END-CALL

Block was written.

The coprocessor generated nothing! and the executable load module was 8% smaller!

Pros and Cons

Pros of precompiler are: No need to DECLARE for bit data columns and no JCL change.

Cons of precompiler are: No real COPY book support, larger code and bigger module size.

Pros of coprocessor are: No reset of SQL-INIT-FLAG, Perfect COPY book support, no generated code, smaller module size, faster run time execution and load.

Cons of coprocessor are: JCL change required and possible DECLARE VARIABLEs needed depending on usage.

What are your experiences with the precompiler and/or the coprocessor?

I would love to hear from you!

TTFN,

Roy Boxwell

2024-04 SCA you like?

This month, I must thank one of my readers who simply asked, “Roy, can you do a newsletter about the Shared Communications Area (SCA) for me please?” Naturally, I replied (after getting two beers from him of course!) So now I wish to delve into the inner workings of the Coupling Facility (CF) and the SCA…

Warning: Scary Stuff Ahead!

In a non-datasharing world, a -DISPLAY GROUP shows this sort of output:                                       

DSN7100I  -DD10 DSN7GCMD
*** BEGIN DISPLAY OF GROUP(........) CATALOG LEVEL(V13R1M504)
                  CURRENT FUNCTION LEVEL(V13R1M504)          
                  HIGHEST ACTIVATED FUNCTION LEVEL(V13R1M504)
                  HIGHEST POSSIBLE FUNCTION LEVEL(V13R1M504) 
                  PROTOCOL LEVEL(2)                          
                  GROUP ATTACH NAME(....)                    
---------------------------------------------------------------------
DB2          SUB                     DB2    SYSTEM    IRLM    
MEMBER   ID  SYS  CMDPREF   STATUS   LVL    NAME      SUBSYS IRLMPROC
-------- --- ---- --------  -------- ------ --------  ----   --------
........   0 DD10 -DD10     ACTIVE   131504 S0W1      IDD1   DD10IRLM
---------------------------------------------------------------------
SPT01 INLINE LENGTH:        32138                                   
*** END DISPLAY OF GROUP(........)                                  
DSN9022I  -DD10 DSN7GCMD 'DISPLAY GROUP ' NORMAL COMPLETION

If that is what you see in your production system, dear reader, then this newsletter is, sadly, not for you!

Hopefully your output actually looks like my little test system:

DSN7100I  -SD10 DSN7GCMD                                             
*** BEGIN DISPLAY OF GROUP(GSD10C11) CATALOG LEVEL(V13R1M504)       
                  CURRENT FUNCTION LEVEL(V13R1M504)                 
                  HIGHEST ACTIVATED FUNCTION LEVEL(V13R1M504)       
                  HIGHEST POSSIBLE FUNCTION LEVEL(V13R1M504)        
                  PROTOCOL LEVEL(2)                                 
                  GROUP ATTACH NAME(SD1 )                           
---------------------------------------------------------------------
DB2          SUB                     DB2    SYSTEM    IRLM          
MEMBER   ID  SYS  CMDPREF   STATUS   LVL    NAME      SUBSYS IRLMPROC
-------- --- ---- --------  -------- ------ --------  ----   --------
MEMSD10    1 SD10 -SD10     ACTIVE   131504 S0W1      JD10   SD10IRLM
MEMSD11    2 SD11 -SD11     ACTIVE   131504 S0W1      JD11   SD11IRLM
---------------------------------------------------------------------
SCA   STRUCTURE SIZE:    16384 KB, STATUS= AC,   SCA IN USE:     3 %
LOCK1 STRUCTURE SIZE:    16384 KB                                   
NUMBER  LOCK ENTRIES:     4194304                                   
NUMBER  LIST ENTRIES:       16354, LIST ENTRIES  IN USE:          81
SPT01 INLINE LENGTH:        32138                                    
*** END DISPLAY OF GROUP(GSD10C11)                                  
DSN9022I  -SD10 DSN7GCMD 'DISPLAY GROUP ' NORMAL COMPLETION

The interesting stuff is from the “SCA   STRUCTURE SIZE:” line down to the “NUMBER  LIST ENTRIES:” line.

Off We Go!

To understand what an SCA is, we need to backtrack a second and first discuss what a CF is?

What is Inside?

The Coupling Facility is de facto *the* central part of data sharing, it contains three objects:

  1. A lock structure called LOCK1, where all the table locks using hashes live, and Record Lock Elements (RLE),
  2. A list structure that is actually the SCA, which contains a bunch of stuff I will go into later,
  3. The Group Buffer pools. Technically, you can run without these but then why are you data sharing if you are not sharing data?

Lock Structure Details

It is called LOCK1 and the system lock manager (SLM) uses the lock structure to control shared Db2 resources like tablespaces and pages and can enable concurrent access to these. It is split internally into two parts: The first part is the Lock Table Entry (LTE), and the second part is a list of update locks normally actually called the Record List Entry (RLE). The default is a 50:50 split of memory. The size of this structure must be big enough to avoid hash contention, which can be a major performance problem. Do not forget that the IRLM reserves 10% of the RLEs for “must complete” processes so you never actually get to use them all!

List Structure Details

This is really the SCA and it contains Member names, BSDS names, Data Base Exception Table (DBET) statuses and recovery information. Typically, at installation time, you pick a number for the INITSIZE (first allocated size of the SCA) from a list of 16 MB , 32 MB, 64 MB or 128 MB. Each of these INITSIZEs then has a SIZE which is typically twice the INITSIZE size as a maximum limit.

Baboom!

IBM write quite happily “Running out of SCA space can cause Db2 to fail” – I can change that to “does” not “can”!

Double Trouble?

The LOCK1 and the SCA do *not* have to be duplexed but it is very highly recommended to do so, otherwise, you have a single point of failure which defeats the whole point of going data sharing, really.

Death by DBET

The DBET data is, strangely enough, the thing that can easily kill ya!

How So?

Imagine you have the brilliant idea of using COPY YES indexes as you have tested a few and seen that RECOVER INDEX is quicker, better, faster than REBUILD or DROP/CREATE for the critical indexes at your shop.

What Happened Next?

So how do you enable COPY YES at the index level? Just a simple ALTER INDEX xxx.yyy COPY YES is all it takes. But *what*, dear friends, does this ALTER do under the covers? It sets the INDEX to ICOPY status – „Not too bad“, you say as the index is fully available, „just wait until the next COPY and that status is then cleared“ – But wait, that is a DBET status! It creates a DBET entry in your SCA… What if you alter 15,000 Indexes to all be COPY YES? Yep – Kiss goodbye to your Db2 sub-system!

Suicide Protection

Some software out there (RealTimeDBAExpert from SEGUS for example!) actually warns you about this and recommends you do this sort of thing in chunks. First the ALTER, then the COPY, one hundred blocks at a time and then the next batch etc.

and then if you do press PF1:

And even then, we have an emergency stop built-in that you can still override but then you must *know* the possible risk involved:

On the other hand, some software is like using SDSF DA when you put a P for “print” by your userid!

Now you know what *not* to do!

Automagic?

Use of the ALLOWAUTOALT(YES) has been discussed for years… on the one hand it automagically adds storage if you are running out, which is a good thing, *but* it also allows other competing systems to decrease storage which can then lead to you running out of storage and losing this Db2 sub-system… nasty, nasty!

Operator command time!

/f <yourirlm>,STATUS,STOR

Gives me:

DXR100I JD11002 STOR STATS
PC: YES  LTEW:  2 LTE:     4M RLE:   16354  RLEUSE:      18        
BB PVT:  1266M  AB PVT (MEMLIMIT):   2160M                         
CSA USE: ACNT:     0K  AHWM:     0K  CUR:  2541K  HWM:  6122K      
        ABOVE 16M:    64   2541K     BELOW 16M:     0      0K      
        AB CUR:               0K     AB HWM:               0K      
PVT USE:   BB CUR:  5684K        AB CUR:     5M                    
           BB HWM:    18M        AB HWM:     5M                    
CLASS   TYPE  SEGS     MEM   TYPE  SEGS     MEM   TYPE  SEGS     MEM
ACCNT    T-1     2      4M    T-2     1      1M    T-3     2      8K
PROC     WRK    14     70K    SRB     5      5K    OTH     4      4K
MISC     VAR    41   7549K    N-V    22    565K    FIX     1     24K

This maps pretty nicely to the – DISPLAY GROUP I just did again:

*** BEGIN DISPLAY OF GROUP(GSD10C11) CATALOG LEVEL(V13R1M504)       
                  CURRENT FUNCTION LEVEL(V13R1M504)                 
                  HIGHEST ACTIVATED FUNCTION LEVEL(V13R1M504)       
                  HIGHEST POSSIBLE FUNCTION LEVEL(V13R1M504)        
                  PROTOCOL LEVEL(2)                                 
                  GROUP ATTACH NAME(SD1 )                           
---------------------------------------------------------------------
DB2          SUB                     DB2    SYSTEM    IRLM          
MEMBER   ID  SYS  CMDPREF   STATUS   LVL    NAME      SUBSYS IRLMPROC
-------- --- ---- --------  -------- ------ --------  ----   --------
MEMSD10    1 SD10 -SD10     ACTIVE   131504 S0W1      JD10   SD10IRLM
MEMSD11    2 SD11 -SD11     ACTIVE   131504 S0W1      JD11   SD11IRLM
---------------------------------------------------------------------
SCA   STRUCTURE SIZE:    16384 KB, STATUS= AC,   SCA IN USE:     3 %
LOCK1 STRUCTURE SIZE:    16384 KB                                   
NUMBER  LOCK ENTRIES:     4194304                                   
NUMBER  LIST ENTRIES:       16354, LIST ENTRIES  IN USE:          18
SPT01 INLINE LENGTH:        32138                                   
*** END DISPLAY OF GROUP(GSD10C11)

Looking at this line in the Modify output:     

PC: YES  LTEW:  2 LTE:     4M RLE:   16354  RLEUSE:      18        

I only have two members so my LTEW (LTE Width) is two bytes, LTE is 4M which is my NUMBER LOCK ENTRIES: 4194304 , RLE is 16354 which is my NUMBER LIST ENTRIES: 16354 and RLEUSE is 18 which is my LIST ENTRIES IN USE: 18. A perfect match – if only they had agreed on a naming convention! ! !

You can also see that my SCA STATUS is AC for ACTIVE and the SCA IN USE is a measly 3%, so no worries for me today!

Finally, you can see that we have 50:50 split as the SCA and the LOCK1 are the same size: 16 MB.

One more line of interest:                  

BB PVT:  1266M  AB PVT (MEMLIMIT):   2160M       

Here you can see the calculated MEMLIMIT for the IRLM, which for my test system is very low, but you should check that the number is good for your site as the range is now much bigger!

Panic Time?

I would start to get seriously sweaty if the SCA IN USE ever got near 70%.

And?

I would not use ALLOWAUTOALT(YES) and allocate 256MB or, if forced, I would go with INITSIZE 128 MB and SIZE 256 MB and then ALLOWAUTOALT(YES).

Lock it Down!

The Max Storage for locks is between 2,048 MB and 16,384 PB with a default of 2,160 MB that I have in the PVT (MEMLIMIT) output above.

Locks per table(space) (NUMLKTS) is 0 to 104,857,600 with a default of 2,000 in Db2 12 and 5,000 in Db2 13. If this number is exceeded then lock escalation takes place unless it is zero in which case there is no lock escalation. As IBM nicely put it “Do not set the value to 0, because it can cause the IRLM to experience storage shortages”.

Locks per user (NUMLKUS) is also from 0 to 104,857,600 with a default of 10,000 in Db2 12 and 20,000 in Db2 13. 0 means no limit. IBM do not recommend 0 or a large number here unless it is really required to run an application. Db2 assumes that each lock is approximately 540 bytes of memory. Here you can also drain your IRLM until it runs out of ACCOUNT T-1 storage space:

DXR175E xxxxxxxx IRLM IS UNABLE TO OBTAIN STORAGE – PVT

This is not a message you ever want to see on the master console! Just do the math on your locks and your memory size!

The Bachelor Problem – Fear of Commitment

You must get the developers to COMMIT or not use row-level locking everywhere.

SCA DBET Calculation

The lock size for each DBET entry is approximately 1,864 bytes from my tests in Db2 12 FL 510. How did I determine that, you ask?

What I did, was multiple ALTER INDEX aaa.bbb COPY YES SQLs until the „SCA in use“ percentage changed from 4% to 5%, and then I kept doing ALTERs and DISPLAYs until the percentage changed from 5% to 6%. It took me exactly 90 ALTERs and with an SCA size of 16,384KB, that gives me a size of around 1,864 bytes per DBET entry. Use this as a Rule Of Thumb for your DBET inducing ALTERs! It gives me a hard limit of about 6,000 Alters.

I hope you found this little discourse into the world of the Coupling Facility and SCA useful!

TTFN,

Roy Boxwell

2024-03 I am fine, up to a certain DEGREE

This month is all about going parallel! In the Db2 world, we have had the ability to run SQLs using parallel processing for decades. It started off a bit wobbly and most people didn’t use it, or even like it, but these days it is extremely useful for certain cases.

Sort Yourself Out

Sort is very important here. If you can do a parallel sort with only one extra parallel task it will halve your elapsed time… if you can add more tasks it takes even less elapsed. Naturally, you do not save on CPU here, in fact it will probably “cost” more, but you are trading CPU for elapsed time.

Ground Rules

IBM states in the documentation that parallel processing is “Only for partitioned objects” but then they mention that even non-partitioned objects can benefit, as the access to the non-clustering index and the data can be done in parallel… which is not helpful if you only have clustering index access, of course!

Bells and Whistles!

There are quite a few things to adjust and play with on the road to parallel processing!

No Way!

If you declare your cursor as WITH HOLD and with isolation level RR or RS then there is *no* CPU parallelism allowed at all but you can still get parallel sorts.

ZPARM Time

First up is CDSSRDEF (CURRENT DEGREE) where the IBM recommendation must be read:

CURRENT DEGREE field (CDSSRDEF subsystem parameter)

The CDSSRDEF subsystem parameter determines the default value that is to be used for the CURRENT DEGREE special register. The default value is used when a degree is not explicitly set in the SQL statement SET CURRENT DEGREE.

Acceptable values: 1, ANY

Default: 1

Update: option 30 on panel DSNTIPB

DSNZPxxx: DSN6SPRM CDSSRDEF

1 Specifies that when a query is dynamically prepared, the execution of that query will not use parallelism. If this value is specified, Db2 does not use any optimization hints for parallelism.

ANY Specifies that when a query is dynamically prepared, the execution of that query can involve parallelism.

Recommendation: In almost all situations, accept the default value of 1. You should use parallelism selectively where it provides value, rather than globally. Although parallelism can provide a substantial reduction in elapsed time for some queries with only a modest overhead in processing time, parallelism does not always provide the intended benefit. For some queries, and in many other situations, query parallelism does not provide an improvement, or it uses too many resources. If you are using nearly all of your CPU, I/O, or storage resources, parallelism is more likely to cause degradation of performance. Use parallelism only where it is most likely to provide benefits.

The ZPARM INDEX_IO_PARALLELISM should get an honorable mention here as it was there right up until Db2 11 and it is, in fact, still within the Db2 12 and 13 indexes at the end of the installation guide pdf, but it has thrown off its mortal coil…

INDEX_IO_PARALLELISM

Specifies whether I/O parallelism is enabled for index insertion.

Acceptable values: YES, NO

Default: YES

DSNZPxxx: DSN6SPRM INDEX_IO_PARALLELISM

Security parameter: No

YES I/O parallelism is enabled for index processing. I/O parallelism allows concurrent insert operations on multiple indexes and can reduce I/O wait time when many indexes are defined in a table.

NO I/O parallelism is disabled for index processing.

Naturally, YES is what it should be set to!

To round out the dearly departed, there was also this one:

PARALLELISM EFFICIENCY field (PARA_EFF subsystem parameter)

Controls the efficiency that DB2 assumes for parallelism when DB2 chooses an access path. Valid values are integers 0 – 100. The integer represents a percentage efficiency.

It came in Db2 9 with PM16020 and started life with a default value of 100 before getting a default change to 50 in Db2 10. It got deprecated in Db2 12 and was removed in Db2 13.

Then PARAMDEG with a handy Top Tip:

MAX DEGREE field (PARAMDEG subsystem parameter)

The PARAMDEG subsystem parameter specifies the maximum degree of parallelism for a parallel group. When you specify a non-zero value for this parameter, you limit the degree of parallelism so that Db2 cannot create too many parallel tasks that use virtual storage.

Acceptable values: 0 – 254

Default: 0

Update: option 30 on panel DSNTIPB

DSNZPxxx: DSN6SPRM PARAMDEG

0 Specifies no limit to the maximum degree of parallelism that Db2 chooses based on the cost estimate for the query and the system configuration, in particular the number of processors online. Db2 counts both general purpose and zIIP processors equally, and applies further adjustment to determine the degree to use.

1 – 254 Specifies the maximum degree of parallelism that Db2 uses. When optimization hints for parallelism are used, the value of the PARAMDEG subsystem parameter does not limit the degree of parallelism at bind time. However, the value of the PARAMDEG subsystem parameter is enforced at execution time. So, if the value of the PARAMDEG subsystem parameter is lower than the degree of parallelism that is specified at bind time, the degree of parallelism is reduced at execution time.

Tip: For systems with more than two zIIP processors configured, use the number of zIIP processors as the starting value, and then adjust as needed for your response time requirements.

Basically, set this value to be one or two times the number of online available CPUs but take into account the ZiiPs.

Then its new DPSI baby brother:

MAX DEGREE FOR DPSI (PARAMDEG_DPSI subsystem parameter)

The PARAMDEG_DPSI subsystem parameter specifies the maximum degree of parallelism that you can specify for a parallel group in which a data partitioned secondary index (DPSI) is used to drive parallelism.

A DPSI is a non-partitioning index that is physically partitioned according to the partitioning scheme of the table. When you specify a value of greater than 0 for this parameter, you limit the degree of parallelism for DPSIs so that Db2 does not create too many parallel tasks that use virtual storage.

Acceptable values: 0-254, DISABLE

Default: 0

Update: option 30 on panel DSNTIPB

DSNZPxxx: DSN6SPRM PARAMDEG_DPSI

Data sharing scope: All members use the same setting

0 Specifies that Db2 uses the value that is specified for the PARAMDEG subsystem parameter, instead of PARAMDEG_DPSI, to control the degree of parallelism when DPSI is used to drive parallelism. This is the default value for the field.

1 Specifies that Db2 creates multiple child tasks but works on one task at a time when DPSI is used to drive parallelism.

2-254 Specifies that Db2 creates multiple child tasks and works concurrently on the tasks that are specified. The number of specified tasks may be larger or smaller than the number of tasks as specified in PARAMDEG. When PARAMDEG is set to 1, the rest of the query does not have any parallelism.

DISABLE Specifies that Db2 does not use DPSI to drive parallelism. Parallelism might still occur for the query if PARAMDEG is greater than 1.

This is for fine-tuning the DPSI use case. Remember, you can have 4096 partitions and so it could well be that a query goes crazy if it sees the ability to go massively parallel. Here you can limit, or even inhibit, that from happening. Only use if you have been bitten by a rogue SQL!

Then we get to Utility parallel processing which is not for all Utilities – but REORG TABLESPACE and COPY are there!

MAX UTILS PARALLELISM field (PARAMDEG_UTIL subsystem parameter)

The PARAMDEG_UTIL subsystem parameter specifies the maximum number of parallel subtasks for some utilities.

PARAMDEG_UTIL affects the following utilities:

• REORG TABLESPACE

• REBUILD INDEX

• CHECK INDEX

• UNLOAD

• LOAD

• COPY

• RECOVER

Acceptable values: 0 – 32767

Default: 99

Update: option 34 on panel DSNTIPB

DSNZPxxx: DSN6SPRM PARAMDEG_UTIL

0 No additional constraint is placed on the maximum degree of parallelism in a utility.

1 – 32767 Specifies the maximum number of parallel subtasks for all affected utilities.

Interesting default huh? In Db2 11 it was actually zero!

LOAD must get a special mention here, as back in Db2 11 it got a new keyword PARALLEL
( nnn ) which enabled parallel loading from a *single* input file (Initially not for PBGs but then that was allowed in Db2 12). This little chestnut has often been forgotten.

Further into the guts of REORG is this little one:

REORG LIST PROCESSING field (REORG_LIST_PROCESSING subsystem parameter)

The REORG_LIST_PROCESSING subsystem parameter specifies the default setting for the PARALLEL option of the Db2 REORG TABLESPACE utility.

Acceptable values: PARALLEL, SERIAL

Default: PARALLEL

Update: option 37 on panel DSNTIPB

DSNZPxxx: DSN6SPRM REORG_LIST_PROCESSING

PARALLEL The default value PARALLEL specifies that the REORG TABLESPACE utility is to use a default PARALLEL YES option when the PARALLEL keyword is not specified in the utility control statement. The PARALLEL YES option specifies that the REORG TABLESPACE utility is to process all partitions that are specified in the input LISTDEF statement in a single execution of the utility.

SERIAL Specifies that the REORG TABLESPACE utility is to use a default PARALLEL NO option when the PARALLEL keyword is not specified in the utility control statement. The PARALLEL NO option specifies that each partition that is specified in the input LISTDEF statement is to be processed in a separate execution of the utility.

I would also happily stick with the default unless you have experienced serious problems with VTS or some such.

Don’t Forget the Bufferpool, Stupid!

BUFFERPOOLs play a major role. The setting of VPSEQT (Virtual bufferpool sequential steal threshold) and VPPSEQT (Virtual bufferpool parallel sequential threshold) might well both have to be raised. Remember that the VPPSEQT is a percentage of the VPSEQT available pages. The bufferpool size itself might well have to be raised (VPSIZE) if you do not see an improvement in the degree of parallelism.

All Ready?

So, you have set, checked, reviewed, changed the ZPARMS and are ready to go?

Where’s the ON Switch?

For Static SQL just bind or rebind with DEGREE(ANY), for dynamic SQL issue a

SET CURRENT DEGREE = ‘ANY’ ;

CDSSRDEF Zparm has the default for this parameter.

If you bind with isolation level CS, then also try and make sure you use CURRENTDATA(NO) as well. This helps performance anyway and also aids Db2 in working with ambiguous cursors. Explicit read-only is always better!

For sorts, where the big elapsed time gains come from, make sure you have sufficiently sized work files allocated! Here, even the WITH HOLD and isolation RR or RS can benefit.

Gotchas?

Always at least one problem isn’t there? If you do DEGREE(ANY) you can expect the EDMPOOL usage to go up between 50% and 70% due to run-time structures. Check your SYSPACKAGE AVGSIZE before and after the BIND/REBIND if you are worried. Always monitor this pool and make sure it is correctly sized for your workload!

Naturally, the CPU might well go up but you should see a good drop in elapsed times and, as far as sort is concerned, you might actually manage a successful parallel sort in a normally constrained sub-system!

Where’s the OFF Switch?

For Static SQL just bind or rebind with DEGREE(1), for dynamic SQL issue a

SET CURRENT DEGREE = ‘1’;

This is also the default value but what if someone changed your default?

If you shrink the VPPSEQT to 0 that will disable all parallel access for objects in that bufferpool.

Insert rows in the resource limit tables – Not recommended as this is a lot of work!

Are You Running in Parallel then? EXPLAIN is Your Friend!

There are a few “access patterns” that allow CP parallelism and they are all documented in the Managing Performance book – “Checklist of query restrictions for query CP parallelism” table.

How do You Check?

The columns of interest in the PLAN_TABLE are the ACCESS_DEGREE and JOIN_DEGREE. If either of these two is not NULL then you are using, or hoping to use, parallel processing! The moment you have more than one table then four other columns become interesting: ACCESS_PGROUP_ID, JOIN_PGROUP_ID, SORTN_PGROUP_ID and SORTC_PGROUP_ID. PGROUP is short for PARALLEL GROUP and for a given PLANNO step they all have the same number. Finally, the PARALLELISM_MODE reflects which type you are using which, these days, can *only* be ‘C’ for Query CP parallelism (Came in DB2 V4). It used to also have the values ‘I’ for parallel I/O operations (Came in DB2 V3)  and ‘X’ for Sysplex query parallelism (Came in DB2 V5) but they were deprecated in Db2 9 and are now both dead and buried!

Which SQLs are Best for Parallel Processing?

SQLs that are I/O intensive and scan lots of pages while returning just a few rows, SQLs that have lots of aggregate functions, and naturally SQLs that require Sort – all of these are good candidates.

Trial it DUMMY!

Best thing to do is a trial rebind to a dummy collection of all your SQL in a sandbox system with production statistics copied over and with parallel processing enabled (Do not forget the bufferpools!). This will then quickly reveal which queries could indeed benefit from going parallel and enable you to activate it only at the package/SQL level that you require in production.

Apply and Test

Once you have your candidate list, and I hope it is not that long, you can simply enable it all in production and do a live run through and review. First with EXPLAIN and then really live.

Remember that it is not good for *all* SQLs but it can really help when it hits the spot!

My Favorite Table Ever!

Db2 11 introduced an automatic five level control system for parallel queries:

Level 1 OK: Query runs with planned parallel degree

Level 2 Mild warning: Reduce parallel degree by ¼

Level 3 Moderate warning: Reduce parallel degree by ½ or to degree 2

Level 4 Severe warning: Reduce to sequential run

Level 5 Melt down: Reduce to sequential run

Level 5 is sub-optimal!

The original table is here: (Do a search for „Melt“)

https://www.redbooks.ibm.com/redbooks/pdfs/sg248222.pdf

How to Tame the Beast?

For static SQL, just bind/rebind with DEGREE(1) to switch off or DEGREE(ANY) to switch on.

For dynamic SQL, if you cannot add the SET CURRENT DEGREE = ‘ANY’ and RLF tables do not work for you then the only way is to assign the tables in question to their own bufferpools and set the VPPSEQT to a value, or leave at default 50, and for *all* other bufferpools set the VPPSEQT to 0 which switches off parallel processing.

Another way of handling dynamic, but a bit over the top for my taste, is a new data-sharing member where the ZPARM CDSSRDEF is set to ‘ANY’. Then any dynamic work that should be allowed to go parallel is simply routed to just this member.

Whaddya all think?

Going to start testing out parallel processing anytime soon?

I’d love to hear from you!

TTFN

Roy Boxwell

Feedback:

One of my readers mentioned that the primary reason they use parallelism is to increase zIIP offload which offers not just elapsed reduction but also saves the cost of the cpu as well.

Naturally, if you get this, then you are really laughing all the way to the bank!

2024-02 BUFFER POOL You too!

Hi all! This month, I would like to share some things that I have recently learned about Db2 for z/OS buffer pool management and tuning as there was some chatter on Listserv about the sizing of buffer pools.

It all started with some Freeware…

Well actually my freeware! SEG created a BPOOL check freeware program to do a quick analysis of your local and group buffer pools. This freeware you can download here is based upon the rules of our new SQL WorkloadExpert (WLX) Buffer pool Use Case where WLX checks and recommends changes to your buffer pools as well as generating the ALTERs you need.

Readers responded

What we saw, after looking at the responses, was *all* sites have buffer pool problems and are not even aware of them!

Bigger is Better!

Well, actually, no … Dan Luksetich and John Campbell had a conversation a few years ago about the topic of “When is too big too bad?” The basic rub of the matter was this:

“LRU chains (queues, whatever you want to call them) are initially allocated at 4,000 pages. For small pools, the chains are allocated as needed, up to 255 chains. Then once you are over 1,020,000 pages, the chains grow in size. At about 800GB to 1TB the user starts to see CPU go up as management of the longer chains becomes excessive. … In addition, if you have a very large pool, you’ll want to set VDWQT and DWQT very low. I have VDWQT at 0,128 for some large pools and others at 1%.”

One Big Pool Or …

So, if you had decided to get monolithic on your BP definitions, it might well be time to do a quick rethink and spread the load across multiple largish (up to 800 GB) buffer pools.

Do Not Forget the DWQTs!

We should not be forgetting to take care of DWQT and its vertical assistant, the VDWQT, with its two values – Just percentage of the buffer pool or, after a comma, an absolute number of pages going up to 9999. These two values are specifically designed for large buffer pools where 1% just doesn’t hack it as a trigger for deferred write. Imagine our example buffer pool before with 1,020,000 pages – 1% is still a huge 10,200 pages!

Why Do We Have Buffer Pools?

Remember, the point of buffer pools is to stop I/O and so trickling these updates out instead of hammering them out is definitely a good way forward!

Seeing is Believing!

Do a few -DISPLAY BUFFERPOOL(xxx) DETAIL(*) commands (obviously replacing xxx with your buffer pool of choice) and check out the counters in the DSNB421I message. If you also compute how long the buffer pool has been active, or you do two commands separated by a known amount of time ,you can then simply calculate /sec values.  If you are getting more than 1 DWT HIT per second then it is time to act. Same is true for VERTICAL DWT HIT but you can afford to get more of these than the DWT HIT ones!

Groups are Good?

You always get a good feeling traveling in a group, and theoretically, it should be the same with GROUP BUFFERPOOLS, as these beasts control the buffer pool usage between members in a data-sharing system. Normally, they are set up and then simply forgotten about! After all, if all is working who cares?

How Does it Look?

Here’s the output of a post processed by me in Excel, -DIS GROUPBUFFERPOOL(*) TYPE(GCONN) GDETAIL(*) MDETAIL(*) command:

Not good!

We all know that the Read Hit Ratio % can basically be ignored at the group level so that’s ok.

But glance down at GBP16K3 – Storage problems, massive reclaims and cross invalidations aplenty. This group buffer pool *must* be examined under the microscope!

The Db2 Guru Says

John Campbell commented:

“It is possible that the reference to updated data across members is very low. But if the miss ratio is elevated across most of the GBPs this not a likely explanation. If check that there no directory entry reclaims causing XIs. These should be tuned away first ie increase INITSIZE and RATIO. Then go after tuning to reduce XI misses by increasing INITSIZE. In both cases rebuild of respective GBP will be required.”

Just the Facts Ma’am

In this case, the first thing is to ratify the RATIO and INITSIZE.

  • Size of all local BPs for BP16K3 is 40,000 pages
  • Current directory to data ratio is 10
  • Allocated size is 65536, so 64 MB
  • Number of directory entries is 30,771
  • Number of data pages is 3,076

From this you can derive* that the starting size (INITSIZE) of GB16K3 should be increased to at least 89 MB, which then gives 44,445 Directory entries and 4,445 data pages.

Monitor Monitor Monitor

Once this change has been implemented the GBPs must be monitored to see if RATIO could/should be changed. Then check out that the Writes failed, Reclaims for directory and especially the Cross-Invalidation counters all go down!

A Little Tweak Can Work Wonders!

Buffer pool tuning is not new and will never go away, but you can get very good system-wide improvements with a few well aimed tweaks!

TTFN.

Roy Boxwell

* When I say „derive“ what I meant is:

Add up all the Local BPs VPSIZE for each member -> A (directory entries)

Divide this number by the RATIO and round up -> B (data entries required for above directories)

Divide this number by the RATIO and round up -> C (directory entries)

Divide this number by the RATIO and round up -> D (data entries required for above directories)

Iterate until the value is less than RATIO and then use the value -> 1

Add *all* of the numbers A, B, C, D, E … to get total number of directory entries NNNNN

Multiply NNNNN by 430 (size of a directory entry) and then divide by 1048576 rounding up, to get the size of the Directory Entries OOOOO in MB

Divide NNNNN by the RATIO rounding up, to get the total number of Data Entries required, then multiply this by the Bufferpool size in K (4, 8, 16 or 32) and divide by 1024 rounding up to get the size of the Data Entries MMMMM in MB

Add MMMMM and OOOOO to get the recommended GBP starting size in MB.

Compare with DSNB758I ALLOCATED SIZE KB / 1024

Easy going, huh? 🙂

2024-01 Happy New SQLCODE!

Aren’t I supposed to be wishing Happy New Year there? Not this month! One of my readers asked me a question about SQLCODEs and it opened up a quite fascinating can of worms!

What is the SQLCODE?

Anyone reading this blog should already know exactly what the SQLCODE is, however, for those of you out there using Google in 2045, the definition is, at least in COBOL:

01 SQLCA.
   05 SQLCAID     PIC X(8).
   05 SQLCABC     PIC S9(9) COMP-5.
   05 SQLCODE     PIC S9(9) COMP-5.
   05 SQLERRM.
      49 SQLERRML PIC S9(4) COMP-5.
      49 SQLERRMC PIC X(70).
   05 SQLERRP     PIC X(8).
   05 SQLERRD     OCCURS 6 TIMES
                  PIC S9(9) COMP-5.
   05 SQLWARN.
      10 SQLWARN0 PIC X.
      10 SQLWARN1 PIC X.
      10 SQLWARN2 PIC X.
      10 SQLWARN3 PIC X.
      10 SQLWARN4 PIC X.
      10 SQLWARN5 PIC X.
      10 SQLWARN6 PIC X.
      10 SQLWARN7 PIC X.
   05 SQLEXT.
      10 SQLWARN8 PIC X.
      10 SQLWARN9 PIC X.
      10 SQLWARNA PIC X.
      10 SQLSTATE PIC X(5).

The third field within the SQLCA is the SQLCODE, which is a four-byte signed integer and it is filled after every SQL call that a program/transaction makes.

All Clear So Far?

So far so good! In the documentation from IBM is this paragraph about how to handle and process SQLCODEs:

SQLCODE

Db2 returns the following codes in SQLCODE:

• If SQLCODE = 0, execution was successful.

• If SQLCODE > 0, execution was successful with a warning.

• If SQLCODE < 0, execution was not successful.

SQLCODE 100 indicates that no data was found.

The meaning of SQLCODEs, other than 0 and 100, varies with the particular product implementing SQL.

Db2 Application Programming and SQL Guide

So, every programmer I have ever talked to checks if the SQLCODE is 0 – Green! Everything is fine, if the SQLCODE is negative – Bad message and ROLLBACK, if the SQLCODE is +100 – End of cursor or not found by direct select/update/delete – normally 100% Ok, everything else issues a warning and is naturally very dependent on the application and business logic!

What’s Wrong With This Picture?

Well, sometimes zero is not really zero… I kid you not, dear readers! The sharp-eyed amongst you, will have noticed the last bytes of the SQLCA contain the SQLSTATE as five characters. Going back to the documentation:

An advantage to using the SQLCODE field is that it can provide more specific information than the SQLSTATE. Many of the SQLCODEs have associated tokens in the SQLCA that indicate, for example, which object incurred an SQL error. However, an SQL standard application uses only SQLSTATE.

So, it still seems fine, but then it turns out that SQLCODE 0 can have non-all zero SQLSTATEs!

New in the Documentation

At least for a few people this is a bit of a shock. From the SQLCODE 000 documentation:

SQLSTATE

  • 00000 for unqualified successful execution.
  • 01003, 01004, 01503, 01504, 01505, 01506, 01507, 01517, or 01524 for successful execution with warning.

Say What?

Yep, this is simply stating that you have got an SQLCODE 0 but up to nine different SQLSTATEs are possible… This is not good! Most error handling is pretty bad, but now having to theoretically add SQLSTATE into the mix makes it even worse!

What are the Bad Guys Then?

01003 Null values were eliminated from the argument of an aggregate function.

01004 The value of a string was truncated when assigned to another string data type with a shorter length.

01503 The number of result columns is larger than the number of variables provided.

01504 The UPDATE or DELETE statement does not include a WHERE clause.

01505 The statement was not executed because it is unacceptable in this environment.

01506 An adjustment was made to a DATE or TIMESTAMP value to correct an invalid date resulting from an arithmetic operation.

01507 One or more non-zero digits were eliminated from the fractional part of a number used as the operand of a multiply or divide operation.

01517 A character that could not be converted was replaced with a substitute character.

01524 The result of an aggregate function does not include the null values that were caused by evaluating the arithmetic expression implied by the column of the view.

Not Good!

From this list the 01004, 01503, 01506 and especially 01517 just jump right out and scream at you! Here in Europe, we have a right to have our names or addresses correctly written and, in Germany with all the umlauts, it can get difficult if you then have a 01517 but SQLCODE 0 result!

I hope you don’t find this newsletter too unsettling as, after all, Db2 and SQL normally works fine, but I do think that these SQLSTATEs should really have warranted a positive SQLCODE when they were first created…

What do you all think?

TTFN,

Roy Boxwell

Update:

One of my readers wonders how practicle these „errors“ are. A good point, and so here is a nice and easy recreate for the 01003 problem:

CREATE TABLE ROY1 (KEY1   CHAR(8) NOT NULL,                 
                   VALUE1 INTEGER ,                         
                   VALUE2 INTEGER )                         
;                                                           
INSERT INTO ROY1 (KEY1)               VALUES ('A') ;        
INSERT INTO ROY1 (KEY1)               VALUES ('AA') ;       
INSERT INTO ROY1 (KEY1,VALUE1)        VALUES ('B', 1) ;     
INSERT INTO ROY1 (KEY1,VALUE1,VALUE2) VALUES ('BB', 1 , 1) ;
INSERT INTO ROY1 (KEY1,VALUE1)        VALUES ('C', 2) ;     
INSERT INTO ROY1 (KEY1,VALUE1,VALUE2) VALUES ('C', 2 , 2) ; 
SELECT * FROM ROY1                                          
;                                                           
CREATE VIEW ROYVIEW1 AS                                     
(SELECT AVG(VALUE1) AS AVGVAL1, AVG(VALUE2) AS AVGVAL2      
 FROM ROY1)                                                 
;                                                           
SELECT * FROM ROYVIEW1                                      
;                                                           

This set of SQL ends up with these outputs:

---------+---------+---------+--------
KEY1           VALUE1       VALUE2    
---------+---------+---------+--------
A         -----------  -----------    
AA        -----------  -----------    
B                   1  -----------    
BB                  1            1    
C                   2  -----------    
KEY1           VALUE1       VALUE2    
---------+---------+---------+--------
C                   2            2    
DSNE610I NUMBER OF ROWS DISPLAYED IS 6

---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+-----
    AVGVAL1      AVGVAL2                                                
---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+-----
          1            1                                                
DSNT400I SQLCODE = 000,  SUCCESSFUL EXECUTION                           
DSNT418I SQLSTATE   = 01003 SQLSTATE RETURN CODE                        
DSNT415I SQLERRP    = DSN SQL PROCEDURE DETECTING ERROR                 
DSNT416I SQLERRD    = 0 0  0  -1  0  0 SQL DIAGNOSTIC INFORMATION       
DSNT416I SQLERRD    = X'00000000'  X'00000000'  X'00000000'  X'FFFFFFFF'
         X'00000000'  X'00000000' SQL DIAGNOSTIC INFORMATION
DSNT417I SQLWARN0-5 = W,,W,,, SQL WARNINGS                              
DSNT417I SQLWARN6-A = ,,,,   SQL WARNINGS                               
DSNE610I NUMBER OF ROWS DISPLAYED IS 1                                  

This is not so good if you ask me…

2023-12 Bufferpool Check

Hi all! Welcome to the end-of-year goody that we traditionally hand out to guarantee you have something to celebrate at the end-of-year party!

BPOOL

All Db2 releases since the very beginning of time have used Buffer Pools and when Data Sharing came along in DB2 V4 Group Bufferpools got invented. Since then bufferpools have always been with us and sadly no-one seems to really care about them anymore!

Checked?

When was the last time that you actually checked your local and group bufferpools? Have you really seen any problems? The fantastic thing about Db2 is that you can have 1000’s of problems occurring every second or two but it *still* just keeps on truckin‘ !

Where to Begin?

I always like to begin at the beginning and so review where you are right now by downloading and running the SOFTWARE ENGINEERING BufferPool Health check program! It is an extremely light weight tool that you must simply run *locally* on each and every member and it simply lists out what it finds as being bad, horrible or evil!

Old Advice

Refer to my „old“ blog to see what you could/should be checking and how bad it can really get as well.

Whaddya get?

The BufferPool HealthCheck is a one step program that simply lists out whatever it finds as being not good. At the end of the documentation is a table listing out all the checks it does. There is one important check it does *not* do and that is the cross-check between all local bufferpool sizes and the initial size of the related group bufferpool. That is just a little bit too complex for some freeware!

Want more?

If the results help you or you are interested in more, then our SQL WorkLoadExpert for Db2 z/OS product has a new separate licensable Use Case – Buffer Pool which contains all the checks plus the GBP Initial size one.

How does it look?

In this screen shot you see the list of Bufferpools being looked at and do you notice the highlights on a couple of tabs? Those yellow stripes should tell you that Bufferpool simulation is on in these two buffferpools. Simulation is really really good, it came in with Db2 11 but most people missed the launch event! Check it out as it is really good but beware! Do not simulate three or more Bufferpools at the same time!

Order By?

The order that you see is the importance list. In my humble opinion this is the list of KPIs that should be worked on from top to bottom and there are more than on this screen grab!

Fixes?

On the right-hand side, we then show you which corrective action is required, if any, to get the bufferpool running better, faster and cheaper!

On the overview highlights we list out what is Good, Bad and Ugly with direct links down to the details. Here will also come a ranking and a highlighting of the Tab to drag your eyes to the problem children that you undoubtedly have!

Here finally is then the first „top down“ view of all your local bufferpools so that you can quickly see the sizes and usage of your bufferpools

Naturally it all looks better in RL!

I would dearly love to hear from any of you who run this software and get before and after reviews! I am 100% sure that buffer pools and especially group buffer pools are simply being ignored these days!

TTFN

Roy Boxwell

2023-11 Are we really living in an agile world?

This month I want to run through all the purely SQL changes that we have received in Db2 12 and in Db2 13 right up until Db2 13 FL504. I was reading about agile development and how fast the deliveries are and so I wondered how many purely SQL changes have we, as SQL Users, actually received over the last six to seven years?

Back to the facts…

Ok, in Db2 12 FL501 we got LISTAGG which was very cool indeed, apart from the fact that you could not use ORDER BY which irritated all the SQL developers I know quite a bit! IBM also created a whole bunch of Accelerator only „pass-thru“ functions that I cannot ever use as I do not know whether or not any of my customers actually has an Accelerator… so, for me, they do not really count. In total 28 BiF’s either got pass-thru or extra Accelerator support so if you *have* an accelerator good news indeed! This was all enabled over Db2 12 FL Levels 504 and 507 as well as APAR PH48480.

Uniwhat?

A bunch of, for me, weird things were the UNI_60 and UNI_90 support added to LOWER, TRANSLATE and UPPER for both Db2 12 and 13. There must be a use case out there but I am lucky enough not to have found it yet!

Super MERGE

MERGE got a major overhaul in Db2 12 with the addition of DELETE support but the story of MERGE did not end there! It still had a major performance problem if any of the index columns got updated as then it was forced to fallback to a tablespace scan. With Db2 13 FL504 (APAR PH47581) this problem was solved – nearly…

The following conditions must be met to enable Db2 to use an index for a MERGE operation when index key columns are being updated:
– The MERGE statement contains a corresponding predicate in one of the
following forms, for each updated index key column:
index-key-column = literal-value, where literal-value is a constant or any
expression that can be treated as a literal, including a host variable, parameter
marker, or non-column expression.
index-key-column IS NULL
– If a view is involved, WITH CHECK OPTION is not specified.

Db2 SQL Reference

MERGE has basically become one of the most powerful SQL statements out there and you can actually cause terrible trouble if you use DRDA with VALUES clauses and hard coded „FOR 10 ROWS“ style of SQLs. All is very well documented and worth a read under the heading:

DRDA considerations when NOT ATOMIC CONTINUE ON SQLEXCEPTION is specified (or the NOT ATOMIC CONTINUE ON SQLEXCEPTION clause is not specified and source-values (VALUES) is specified)

Db2 SQL Reference

This Db2 13 APAR also enabled the chance of getting List Prefetch as an access path which is, as far as I can tell, the only „new“ access path in Db2 13.

Pagination anyone?

The use of OFFSET was a great innovation for Db2 but the „other“ pagination was better! I mean data-dependent pagination which changed this old chestnut of an SQL:

WHERE (LASTNAME = 'SMITH' AND FIRSTNAME > 'JOHN') 
   OR (LASTNAME > 'SMITH')

Into this modern SQL:

WHERE (LASTNAME, FIRSTNAME) > ('SMITH', 'JOHN')

Much much better and for online generated dynamic SQL, I am talking to you CICS, a fantastic win! To verify this you get a range-list index scan „NR“ in your ACCESSTYPE PLAN_TABLE column when you EXPLAIN it.

One at a time please

Piece-wise DELETE using the FETCH FIRST nnnn ROWS was also a really good idea instead of causing possible lock escalations and/or timeouts. A simple loop around the DELETE statement and Bob’s your uncle!

Db2 13 – What’s New?

The big stuff here was the extension of the PROFILE table (I keep talking about it don’t I?) as now it also handles Local things – This is a game changer! Starting with CURRENT_LOCK_TIMEOUT & DEADLOCK_RESOLUTION_PRIORITY but I am sure this list will grow and grow. The PROFILE table is just way to good not to use these days!

AI got a major boost

We got a bunch of AI stuff in Db2 13 (SQL Data Insights) but the first new „agile“ one was in FL504 when AI_COMMONALITY was released. It will hopefully enable shops to find outliers in the data which were not there at training time.

Db2 V8 finally done!

Finally, the last thing that was started way back when in DB2 V8 was done! The length of a column name has been expanded from 30 up to 128 bytes. However, do not do this! The SQLDA is *not* designed for this and so it might look nice on paper but, depending on how you interface to them, it might cause serious grief!

Lower cadence higher quality

IBM have announced a cadence of two FL’s per year down from the 3 – 4 when Agile all started and so I am happy that the list of changes will keep getting longer and the quality of the code higher.

Just SQL!

Please remember all I am talking about here is SQL relevant enhancements – there are tons of others as well – just think about Utilities or FTB etc. etc. For a full list always download and read the latest „What’s New?“ guide.

Did I miss anything? Drop me a line if you think so!

TTFN,

Roy Boxwell

2023-10 IDUG EMEA – Roy’s report

Ahhh! So good to get back on the road again… I am now back to my pre-COVID travelling and it catches up with you! I am soooo glad that I only have the German GUIDE in December and then I have *no* more planned travelling this year – Hoorah!

I have not heard of any outbreaks of COVID from IDUG yet, unlike TechExchange where I heard a bunch of Champions all got the lurgy again…

Back to Tech Stuff!

Tons of really good technical talks all started for me on Sunday already, as I flew in to Prague

I met „The Usual Suspects“ at the hotel bar, including Julian Stuhler who was there, as a retired guy, to hold the keynote on Monday morning. We had a nice night chatting and drinking. Then early the next day, off I was to the Prague Conference Center (PCC) to register and get the booth built.

Once there, I met the dynamic duo! Dan had flown in after winning Best Speaker at the IDUG 2023 NA and it was great to see him, and Denis, again!

Of course, as I was busy building the booth, I missed Julian’s key note but I heard it was very good indeed. I hope that someone uploads the PDF to the IDUG site so I can actually read what he said! I heard that it was all about Past, Present and Future – the Evolution of Db2 and IDUG and it must have been really good as it overran and was full!

Due Diligence

Please remember two important things:

1) To get the links to work you must be registered at IDUG *and* entitled to the content. Otherwise you will get a „forbidden“ screen popping up! If that is the case you can then think about buying the „Premium“ version of IDUG membership which does allow downloading of conference files without having to wait around two years.

2) I am only one person, so I did not get to see every presentation at the IDUG. If the presenter was swapped or the session cancelled I might not have caught that, so I apologize if I have forgotten anyone or anything!

Track A is Where it Always Starts!

A01 with Haakon Roberts doing his usual fantastic stuff about Db2 Past, Present and Future. For me, the highlight was the Db2 13 FL504 new Built-in Function (BiF) for SQL Data Insights (SQL DI) AI_COMMONALITY that I had seen rumors about but now it is coming this month! UPDATE! Now Available, Dec 2023

https://www.idug.org/HigherLogic/System/DownloadDocumentFile.ashx?DocumentFileKey=42c241e6-1e16-740c-ee14-940c436994c7

A02 was Akiko with a 40-Year review of performance, including some very nice comparisons from the IBM Benchmarks of 13 years ago and today. Amazing how fast things get in just 13 years – 4.2 times faster but with 2.5 times more logging! Another nugget from this was that SQL Data Insights goes into fake parallel mode to enable ZiiP eligible workloads…

https://www.idug.org/HigherLogic/System/DownloadDocumentFile.ashx?DocumentFileKey=67afc3f7-6ae7-72af-ff96-71726cf5a7b7

A03 was Haakon again, this time showing us the Past, Present and Future of schema evolution. My take-away from this, is due to moving from multi-table tablespaces (Think QMF here!) you might well start running out of OBIDs in your Database. We at SEG have a Migration Health Check that tells you if you are indeed going to be knocking on the door of some nasty internal limits!

https://www.seg.de/produkte/produktliste/migration-healthcheck/

His presentation is here: https://www.idug.org/HigherLogic/System/DownloadDocumentFile.ashx?DocumentFileKey=f85bd909-f1db-c0d8-c3d9-650cd6300554

A04 Rotate away your problems from Johan Sundborg. This includes nearly all the JCL you need to set-up and run Partition Rotation for your good candidates. You can save massive amounts of CPU if you have the right Use Case.

https://www.idug.org/HigherLogic/System/DownloadDocumentFile.ashx?DocumentFileKey=16518129-de14-7a39-9b96-6b13e660eb01

A05 Decompressing the Compression in Db2 for z/OS. Everything you ever wanted to know but were afraid to ask about compression on Db2!

https://www.idug.org/HigherLogic/System/DownloadDocumentFile.ashx?DocumentFileKey=e161d84b-a78c-b73b-ac00-652ffd4f0d2c

A06 Utilities What’s new? Haakon Roberts telling us all the new stuff!

https://www.idug.org/HigherLogic/System/DownloadDocumentFile.ashx?DocumentFileKey=05227c1c-b4a3-e053-df8b-8c7227fecca9

A09 Establishing Db2 recovery procedures using redirected recover. A very good overview of doing RECOVERY using REDIRECTED as well. A good list of nasty little APARs where „old“ table defs can get ya! Plus, a page about Rookie mistakes…

https://www.idug.org/HigherLogic/System/DownloadDocumentFile.ashx?DocumentFileKey=9c3a3538-4f41-7d8c-b818-f2ad4343f182EU23A11S.pdf

A13 Monitoring your distributed workload for Db2 for z/OS. This was all about the fascinating world of trying to figure out who is connecting with which type and version of connector to your Db2 sub-system. A brief overview of the new IFCIDs 411 and 412 with the very good data that they have is also included. A bunch of example SQLs rounded off a very good presentation indeed!

https://www.idug.org/HigherLogic/System/DownloadDocumentFile.ashx?DocumentFileKey=55f37cfe-f5b6-54fc-b826-f0348daeb32b

A15 Implicitly or Explicitly Defined Db2 Objects the Good, the Bad and the Ugly. Steen doing his thang! A good detailed look at the pro’s and con’s of implicit spaces and the many pitfalls of PBGs with LOBs – I avoid them at all costs!

https://www.idug.org/HigherLogic/System/DownloadDocumentFile.ashx?DocumentFileKey=9826831b-9fe7-0e17-f39c-fd98aae967e0

A16 How to avoid the loss of data and minimize the costs associated with a Db2 outage. Top tips all about Backup and Recovery. Including the separation of catalogs that is required for successful BACKUP SYSTEM.

https://www.idug.org/HigherLogic/System/DownloadDocumentFile.ashx?DocumentFileKey=4fb8d50b-6dea-c1ca-99e4-8b7ff550462d

A17 Sun Up to Sun Down The Chase to Achieve 24-7. This was a peek into parallel sysplex and how to guarantee you do not fail! Also includes a bunch of Db2 13 enhancements for continuous availability.

https://www.idug.org/HigherLogic/System/DownloadDocumentFile.ashx?DocumentFileKey=cbadeaf5-ccf9-8cf7-a48d-670977187d23

Track B

B02 The A-Z of Logging for Db2 for z/OS explained everything about what is on and not on the Log and really contained an A to Z list. However, the values for J, K and Y were missing – Perhaps my trusty readers can come up with some values? E.g. J – JCL, K – KB and Y – Yottabyte! Further to this, we have at SEG another freeware that reads your archive logs and tells you what you have! You may well be surprised at the amount of stuff that gets logged!

https://www.seg.de/produkte/produktliste/db2-archive-log-viewer/

Julia’s presentation is here: https://www.idug.org/HigherLogic/System/DownloadDocumentFile.ashx?DocumentFileKey=e70efe05-a89a-0821-3a8e-1251a36665cc

B03 Recovery From Z To A was a great presentation full of useful info all about doing the dangerous job of RECOVERY. Well worth a review!

https://www.idug.org/HigherLogic/System/DownloadDocumentFile.ashx?DocumentFileKey=3bc5b1c9-030f-124c-dfaa-0b61b037549d

B04 A day in the life of a Db2 for z/OS schema was a really nice explanation of schema life from three different perspectives: Developer, DBA and System! Pretty neat!

https://www.idug.org/HigherLogic/System/DownloadDocumentFile.ashx?DocumentFileKey=8ed0f8be-7c05-c9d5-913e-98ddde18e5e2

B05 Reorg Rabobank biggest Db2 table from APN to RPN. A really good real-life story about REORGing epically large tables. My highlight, was the fact that the elapsed time output of the reload message „rolls over“ after 99 hours!!!

https://www.idug.org/HigherLogic/System/DownloadDocumentFile.ashx?DocumentFileKey=6988c781-886b-a050-7803-34324f86a2b1

B06 Db2 For z/OS and Unicode – What you need to know. A complete review and overview of the ever-present Unicode code pages that are always with us all these days!

https://www.idug.org/HigherLogic/System/DownloadDocumentFile.ashx?DocumentFileKey=02855744-2e25-19fd-8f3b-da0fa934430f

B07 Getting Ready For Db2 13 – Updates. This was a review of Db2 12 Agile, continuous delivery and the steps required for a painless migration to Db2 13.

https://www.idug.org/HigherLogic/System/DownloadDocumentFile.ashx?DocumentFileKey=5c02aa69-074d-9e84-4901-b0dfdd4ace75

B08 Measuring is knowing – Db2 for z/OS instrumentation enhancements you may have missed. A very nice recap of all IFI changes in the past few years and also Commands and message changes. Please note that „Miscellaneous“ was about 50% of the presentation!! Great data here and a reminder about being careful about RID overflows not actually being RID overflows.

https://www.idug.org/HigherLogic/System/DownloadDocumentFile.ashx?DocumentFileKey=1f694955-7512-7476-8b09-0abe6b9394e4

B09 Who’s afraid of DDF? An explanation about DDF and how to get a handle on it. Another call to arms about using the PROFILE functionality (One of the best kept secrets in Db2 for z/OS IMHO!)

https://www.idug.org/HigherLogic/System/DownloadDocumentFile.ashx?DocumentFileKey=14ceba96-91a9-ce4b-9456-0fe782b3e735

B10 “Run it Back” Db2 for z/OS All new “2023 SWAT Tales” Was another great list of things from Anthony which you all should be doing. Included is a great visualization of Cyber Resiliency/”Safeguarded” Copies which we did not even need a few years ago! A very important point that he mentioned, is the PTFs that we must all apply. I can happily recommend you subscribe to my APAR Newsletter where I update, every month, all the APARs of interest including HIPER and PE ones! Just go here to see the latest and, if you want to, you can then register for email updates:

https://www.seg.de/apar-update/

Here’s Anthony’s presentation:

https://www.idug.org/HigherLogic/System/DownloadDocumentFile.ashx?DocumentFileKey=f4733d55-8200-318f-ea86-cbf08a3ca779

B11 Db2 13 for the production DBA. Has three points for the DBA today. PBG – PBR Conversion. DDL break in using the PROFILE tables again. Finally, Dynamic Query Stabilization. Great stuff!

https://www.idug.org/HigherLogic/System/DownloadDocumentFile.ashx?DocumentFileKey=c14e1ec6-df91-734f-075f-2960700b287a

B12 How to Hack Db2 for z/OS – Lessons Learned from Mainframe Hackers. That grabbed your attention didn’t it? Slide 19 makes me laugh every time I see it! Seriously, the major problems are allowing uncontrolled access to APF load libraries (This has been true for decades of course, but these days with the new twist of USS +a usage! Slide 55 is extremely useful here.) the use of Magic SVCs (These I have used in the past…) and basic user id protection.

https://www.idug.org/HigherLogic/System/DownloadDocumentFile.ashx?DocumentFileKey=e9815b49-c30f-6bb4-f19f-d8d23971ce7a

B13 Modernise your Db2 Environment – Top 20 Features People are Still not using. Adrian doing a great job of reminding us of what we have but are stubbornly ignoring! Slide 21 contained a very simple way of seeing if Parallel Access is for you! Slide 31 also reflects my opinion with RAM availability on z/OS. I am sure we (the DBAs) have much more RAM available than we are aware of. It can be *much* better used as an increased size for your buffer pools! Then slide 34 showed the real benefits…

https://www.idug.org/HigherLogic/System/DownloadDocumentFile.ashx?DocumentFileKey=79d5a8f5-cf4a-8b7f-e021-a61e328795a0

B14 Recovering to another subsystem with DSN1COPY. Sadly, not available at this time. A09 is lurking here!

B15 Db2 13 for z/OS: What is new in Security and Compliance? All about SMF type 1154 and its usage in compliance. Then the use of various caches within Db2 for Authorizations finally discusses PROFILE tables again!

https://www.idug.org/HigherLogic/System/DownloadDocumentFile.ashx?DocumentFileKey=988aca9c-18f8-b088-efc3-7796b2c09374

B16 When reality “derails” capacity planning for Db2 zOS. No link available yet, but it is in the zip file as a download. My mantra – slides 26 – 35! Especially slide 35…

B17 Db2 13 for z/OS Utility History :What is it and how to use it. All about the new Utility History table and example SQLs about how to use it.

https://www.idug.org/HigherLogic/System/DownloadDocumentFile.ashx?DocumentFileKey=cba21c87-c999-7f8b-950a-eab25d9c7b60

Track E

E02 SQL tuning : A business Case. Where Kurt held a plaidoyer for SQL Tuning and Training.

https://www.idug.org/HigherLogic/System/DownloadDocumentFile.ashx?DocumentFileKey=b3baae65-1eab-c9ae-33b1-6850a9de028f

E04 Fun with Ansible and Db2 for z/OS. If it is possible to have fun… A ton of examples, tips and tricks etc. If you are going down the road of Ansible this should be your starting point!

https://www.idug.org/HigherLogic/System/DownloadDocumentFile.ashx?DocumentFileKey=f505a697-6df7-1965-b91d-ee781a426a9d

E07 Near real time reporting system with Db2 data sources from both mainframe and AIX. Al about ELT and transferring data!

https://www.idug.org/HigherLogic/System/DownloadDocumentFile.ashx?DocumentFileKey=88c98e8d-bb33-c3a7-c7d6-0afd4b3610df

E08 Db2 Analytics Accelerator – What is New, what are customers doing with that! Hard numbers and data from real life customer usage of the Accelerator. The performance boost of NVMe is impressive! Ending with a sneak peek at 7.5.12.

https://www.idug.org/HigherLogic/System/DownloadDocumentFile.ashx?DocumentFileKey=b07fe65a-770f-9480-1f86-fc1989458db9

E11 Successfully migrate from CDC to Integrated Synchronization IBM Db2 Analytics Accelerator. A nice plan to migrate from CDC to InSync, listing out the steps to take and how to get there.

https://www.idug.org/HigherLogic/System/DownloadDocumentFile.ashx?DocumentFileKey=be93c0fa-44f1-80b0-1aad-b87897fe9bd7

E12 It’s AI Jim, but not as we know it! My little presentation all about the Hype and the Reality of AI and then showing how useful the three (four!) SQL Data Insights Built-in Functions that are supplied free of charge with Db2 13 for z/OS are.

https://www.idug.org/HigherLogic/System/DownloadDocumentFile.ashx?DocumentFileKey=40c942dc-b33d-57b4-f6f0-3aacb125a58a

E13 Db2 and the Magic of Disk – This was all about Disk I/O from way back when to today. Very interesting indeed. Gotta try and reserve a table at Katja’s restaurant one day!

https://www.idug.org/HigherLogic/System/DownloadDocumentFile.ashx?DocumentFileKey=218288ec-3859-b5f3-696a-0d14b0bf780e

E14 Db2 for z/OS and LUW Big Buttons for Application Performance. DanL strutting his stuff and basically trying to get us to reduce the number of SQL calls or the number of SQLs by using joins, views etc. as these are, by definition, the best way to save time and cpu!

https://www.idug.org/HigherLogic/System/DownloadDocumentFile.ashx?DocumentFileKey=ba91de38-706e-3aa3-9575-746afea05b9d

E15 ‘The Art of War’ against Bad SQL. Cool title indeed! A very good presentation with real world examples about how simple changes can save mega-bucks – Plus plenty of cool quotes!

https://www.idug.org/HigherLogic/System/DownloadDocumentFile.ashx?DocumentFileKey=a2269a6d-6186-5511-cd3d-e918da572510

E16 Accelerator on Z Monitoring and workload assessment update. A review of how to monitor the Accelerator(s) you have and make sure enough disk and memory are available and used!

https://www.idug.org/HigherLogic/System/DownloadDocumentFile.ashx?DocumentFileKey=400e832d-08a6-29db-fc9b-e4f27b84ddf3

E17 How to Drive Down Database Development Dollars. An absolutely wonderful mix of tips and tricks in a wide variety of languages, all about getting more performance and less pain out of your system.

https://www.idug.org/HigherLogic/System/DownloadDocumentFile.ashx?DocumentFileKey=df73726d-e847-88d1-4af3-9c19fcdf2d7b

Track F

F01 Db2 DevOps, Zowe CLI plugins, VS Code extensions and more! As the name suggests, a ton of stuff about DevOps, Zowe and VS Code extensions!

https://www.idug.org/HigherLogic/System/DownloadDocumentFile.ashx?DocumentFileKey=61a09bac-0245-1c93-cf1e-c774363165bd

F05 SQL on Db2 for zOS: The Missing Parts and how to deal with them. Thomas lists a few SQL challenges he has had, how he solved them and how he would *like* them solved by IBM development! There is also a nice list of AHA! Ideas you may wish to vote for.

https://www.idug.org/HigherLogic/System/DownloadDocumentFile.ashx?DocumentFileKey=3bb44f98-bf17-2a78-94df-835bc1498f13

F07 Db2 13 Application Development Topics. Gives a great review of Db2 13 and what SQL changes are contained within as well as PROFILE table again! Get the hint? Included at the end are 12 pages all about the „history“ of SQL fitting in to the overall theme of „40 Years“

https://www.idug.org/HigherLogic/System/DownloadDocumentFile.ashx?DocumentFileKey=c2bc2f2d-5f8c-8089-2938-6c08c7166dfe

F08 The Business Value of Db2 SQL Data Insights. All about how to use the SQL DI in a real business case. Starts with football but ends with an Insurance Case. Well worth looking into for the examples contained within!

https://www.idug.org/HigherLogic/System/DownloadDocumentFile.ashx?DocumentFileKey=f5a2dba5-3d4d-703e-d8dd-f1ededcfbb96

F09 Application Modernization – Considered those Db2 for z/OS Capabilities? Going modern but incrementally. She showed how many JAVA, Python, node.js and Go developers there are out there… Loads! As a bonus it mentions PROFILEs again…

https://www.idug.org/HigherLogic/System/DownloadDocumentFile.ashx?DocumentFileKey=7d923e7b-fc7b-b64b-3c93-433479360d1f

F11 Lessons learned while enabling DDF in an existing Db2 Datasharing environment. A good way to show how to set up DDF including security and log performance. The recommendations for application name and accounting to be used are very good and I can also recommend it! It is the *only* real chance to see which application is connecting to your host Db2 subsystem! Guess what? They also used PROFILE tables ….

https://www.idug.org/HigherLogic/System/DownloadDocumentFile.ashx?DocumentFileKey=130dc657-f750-d913-f1a4-9c1a9f4bd3c4

F12 CLPPLUS : The Other Db2 Client. A cross platform presentation and it contains what you need to know about getting LOAD on z/OS to work from LUW. Very cool and thin – unlike me …

https://www.idug.org/HigherLogic/System/DownloadDocumentFile.ashx?DocumentFileKey=faa4ba63-5ede-be6f-d791-2b1c439aaf35

F13 Back to Basics with Db2 buffer pools. This is a great intro and explanation of buffer pools. What they are, what to look for and what to do! I held a vendor presentation P06 which covers *exactly* the same ground! My vendor presentation is here:

https://www.seg.de/event/idug-2023-emea-db2-tech-conference/

And the original IDUG presentation is here:

https://www.idug.org/HigherLogic/System/DownloadDocumentFile.ashx?DocumentFileKey=96e5107b-1b98-bb4d-e533-a527937698a5

F14 Encrypting Db2 Connections with TLS/SSL. Everything about TLS/SL – It gets really interesting for z/OS people around slide 15 when „keyrings“ get mentioned! Slides 41 to 44 are also very handy for trouble shooting.

https://www.idug.org/HigherLogic/System/DownloadDocumentFile.ashx?DocumentFileKey=5161c4be-93d8-0809-6355-20d087a4e2cf

F16 Get Cozy with Ansible for z/OS. Apart from having the absolute coolest session code of the IDUG, this was all about going Ansible on the Mainframe. This is an introduction into the world of Ansible automation on the mainframe including all that goes with it. Impressive stuff!

https://www.idug.org/HigherLogic/System/DownloadDocumentFile.ashx?DocumentFileKey=0305ef2d-6900-8f96-660b-040c9265bda9

F17 Rock & Roll with Db2 for z/OS “Hey Db2, suggest music like zzTop” – This was a deep dive into SQL Data Insights on z/OS using Spotify as an example. It also shows the internals of the ML system used. It finishes with a „call to arms“ to get other people interested in the Host side of things. Slide 19 is very handy for all the Prereqs you will need.

https://www.idug.org/HigherLogic/System/DownloadDocumentFile.ashx?DocumentFileKey=7db8326f-7170-2c94-0f8f-03782f103ee7

Track G

G01 Database Design Basics. An excellent intro into DBMS’s and very good ideas about design especially for OLTP and OLAP and, one of my faves, naming standards for columns and tables!

https://www.idug.org/HigherLogic/System/DownloadDocumentFile.ashx?DocumentFileKey=7fd0c83e-9248-2500-5c5f-9062f282ee9b

G02 The Basics of SQL Queries: From Fetches to getpages and I/Os. Basically, an SQL 101 but contains a lot of good data. The use of buffer pools is well explained and how they can really help (see earlier presentations!) Strangely PROFILEs were *not* mentioned this time!

https://www.idug.org/HigherLogic/System/DownloadDocumentFile.ashx?DocumentFileKey=1119b400-8b89-71e9-f2da-7c08a7076eb5

G03 DB2 SQL – go beyond the usual – My current TOP 40 SQL tips, tricks, and opinions. Brian gave a great presentation about the modern features of SQL that you all should be using! Well worth reading.

https://www.idug.org/HigherLogic/System/DownloadDocumentFile.ashx?DocumentFileKey=2f992cd6-976a-f790-7cbf-09993cdce0ca

G04 Advanced Db2 Performance Tuning for Beginners. Joe doing his usual great work of showing how to really do SQL tuning. I especially liked the Filter Factors page!

https://www.idug.org/HigherLogic/System/DownloadDocumentFile.ashx?DocumentFileKey=c1a5c6dd-8771-78fa-507b-fb242ac3b7b3

G05 Back To Basics Real Time Statistics: What are they and how are they used? Another 101 style presentation but this time covering everything about the RTS tables and how you can, and should, use the data within.

https://www.idug.org/HigherLogic/System/DownloadDocumentFile.ashx?DocumentFileKey=33ac07e5-7967-60ec-b75c-2c9f6386ec9f

G10 IBM watsonx.data & Db2 Warehouse: Scale analytics and AI across the enterprise. All the low-down about watsonx including the „new“ governance part that we will all need to get full transparency.

https://www.idug.org/HigherLogic/System/DownloadDocumentFile.ashx?DocumentFileKey=3c9aa700-57c9-efb4-23d4-f18f30e239e6

G15 Db2 for z/OS administrative tooling strategy : Customer feedback, Roadmap, future direction & DEMO!! Naturally no demo here, but I am sure you can request one! All about Admin Foundation and the EOS of Data Server Manager in March 2024. It then went on to tell us why we should all be using Visual Studio Code and then adding in all the various extensions (Db2, SQL, COBOL etc. etc.). Here lies the future!

https://www.idug.org/HigherLogic/System/DownloadDocumentFile.ashx?DocumentFileKey=5f4fcb40-c631-d784-8da4-dace8ce19ee8

G16 Db2 AI for z/OS Strategy and Technical Deep Dive. Akiko took us on a tour! The two AIs out there now for Db2: SQL Data Insights (For free) and Db2 AI for z/OS (Not for free) now at version 1.6 and the latter was the topic that was discussed including System Assessment.

https://www.idug.org/HigherLogic/System/DownloadDocumentFile.ashx?DocumentFileKey=3142d8ef-7b0a-6695-f2f1-e6a0cb6c6885

G17 Db2 and Zowe. Everything, everywhere at once ! A run-through of Zowe over the years and also Developer extensions. If you are starting down the road of Zowe or Admin Foundation and Visual Code this is a good starting point!

https://www.idug.org/HigherLogic/System/DownloadDocumentFile.ashx?DocumentFileKey=13479e3a-344f-82f8-9c28-4783c710f2d2

It was another really good IDUG with loads of excellent and interesting z/OS sessions. I hope to see you in Valencia in 2024 for EMEA or Charlotte for NA !

Please remember: You must be authorized to access the IDUG data and if the links fail please contact IDUG and not me 🙂

TTFN,

Roy Boxwell

2023-09 Toronto visit

Ahhh! What a great time I just had in sunny ol‘ Toronto. I was extremely happy to be back at the Central Canada Db2 Users Group (CCDUG) meeting for 2023 held at the BMO Institute For Learning. It has always been a fantastic venue for presenters and attendees, and this year we had the added bonus of a „Coyote“ warning… fun fun fun!

The CCDUG is a two day, three track mini-IDUG if you like, and the organizers added onto the second day an AppDev track as well. So you had Db2 for z/OS, Db2 for LUW, IMS and AppDev – A very nice mix of things indeed!

Just the Facts, Ma’am!

I am mainly a z/OS style of guy (old school!) and so went for the z/OS track of course! It all started, as normal, with a keynote from Michael Kwok that was all about „accidental discoveries“ and how these often have had a tremendous impact on the world. Examples included Penicillin and Microwave cookers. It also included Db2!

He highlighted the environmental factors required for innovation to succeed:

01 Have an open mind

02 Use Strategy as a filter

03 Commit

Open Minded?

For the first point, Penicillin, having an open mind was important when Alexander Fleming, in September 1928, noticed the effect that a mold had on his old petri dishes. It was having an open mind that enabled him to really see the very first antibiotic in action. Sadly, it took another 14 years before it was actually used in a pure form and yet another year before mass production started in the second world war.

Strategy is Everything!

Using Strategy as a filter was highlighted by looking at how Bill Gates took advantage of the CP/M creators Digital Research people’s failure to meet and agree a deal with IBM to discuss a new OS for the IBM 5150 PC. IBM then contacted Microsoft, who agreed to write PC-DOS which evolved into MS-DOS which basically started the modern PC world we all now know today.

Commit is Not Just a Db2 Verb!

Commit was all about the invention of Microwave Cookers! Percy Spencer working at Raytheon in 1945 was working with Radar sets using high energy magnetrons (A British invention, again in the second world war) and he noticed that a chocolate bar in his pocket melted. It took an awful lot of commitment to eventually get the product to market and it first appeared in 1947 as the „Radarange“ at $5000, 3kw and was water-cooled!

Oh oh! IBM at Work…

Into these three ideas comes IBM! Back in the 60’s and 70’s, data centers started storing more and more data and Tedd Codd wrote down the rules of the Relational Data Model in his seminal paper „A Relational Model of Data for Large Shared Data Banks“ in June 1970. Now back in those days, IBM was not exactly well known as being Open Minded, Strategic or Committed!

Then, a few extraordinary individuals pulled it all together to actually get what was called System R, the granddaddy of all Relational Databases, into existence, starting in 1974 and got its first customer in 1977. It still took another six years to actually arrive at DB2 in 1983, and ten years later, we got DB2 for LUW as well. The actual GA date of DB2 1.1 was the 2nd of April 1985.

So, basically, Db2 was an accidental discovery!

Then it Begins!

The sessions at CCDUG then all kicked off, so here is my list of the ones I either attended or read up afterwards (naturally, I cannot attend every session!) All are linked directly to the CCDUG website and I thank them for allowing public access!

Database Administration Enhancements of Db2 13 for z/OS from Robert Catterall. An excellent run through everything you need to know about Db2 13 including more PROFILE support. This is probably one of the most under-used Db2 features out there.

Db2 for z/OS 101: Buffer Pools and Group Buffer Pools from Tori Felt and Keziah Knopp. Was a highly entertaining 101 level intro to the complex world of Buffer Pools, Managers and disk usage within Db2 – Highly recommended as these little details easily get lost nowadays!

It’s AI Jim, but not as we know it! from me. Obviously, a fantastic presentation all about AI – truth or hype? 😄

Analysis of DEADLOCK IFCID 172 in SMF with no special tool and low cost from Xiaodong Ma. This was all about reading the bits and bytes from the IFCID to find *all* the blockers and waiters – not just the first two you get in the DSNT375I messages.

Who is afraid of DDF? from Toine Michielse was all about controlling your DDF workload simply and easily. Use of PROFILE is also recommended …

End of Day One

Then we had a very pleasant evening with the Vendor Expo and prize draws before retiring to the bar to drink some cold beverages and play pool!

Next day, bright-eyed and bushy-tailed we started off again.

Securing Db2 for z/OS Data: Encryption and Much More from Robert Catteral which contained a ton of great information all about encrypting and securing your data and communications – Great stuff!

An Audit a day keeps the lawyers at bay! from my colleague Ulf Heinrich listed out all the requirements for auditing a Db2 system from the auditor’s perspective. Including real-world examples and ending with a „how it looks in Zowe“ bonus preview!

Db2 for z/OS Administrative and Developer tools strategy: Customer feedback, roadmap, and future direction from Sowmya Kameswaran was all about the ongoing project to unify the user experience in Db2. This includes the IBM Unified Management Server for z/OS, IBM Db2 Administration Foundation for z/OS, IBM Db2 DevOps Experience for z/OS, IBM Query Workload Tuner for z/OS , IBM Db2 Analytics Accelerator Administration services for z/OS , Zowe and IBM Db2 for z/OS Developer Extension! A ton of stuff here!

Partition By Range (PBR) and Relative Page Number (RPN) explained from Frank Rhodes drilled down into the nitty gritty details of PBG, PBR and the seven-byte RID!

Db2 For z/OS and Unicode – What you need to know from Chris Crone went into details about what exactly you need to know about UNICODE and how it affects you, your data, and your SQL applications! COLLATION_KEY is the really good one here!

Db2 for z/OS System Profile Monitoring: Overview and Db2 13 Enhancements from Mark Rader contained all the great new stuff in Db2 13 regarding PROFILE usage. Once again well worth a read as it is the best way to control DDF. Slide 15 is the highlight for me!

On the Application development front there were also a whole bunch of great presentations:

Db2 SQL and SQL PL – A Journey Through Db2 12 and 13 Functions Levels from Chris Crone where he runs through the new SQL and SQLPL stuff from Db2 12 before showing all the new stuff in Db2 13 as well.

Db2 for z/OS: REST and Hybrid Cloud from Tori Felt and Keziah Knopp was a huge presentation all about RESTful APIs and all the fun and games involved with them… Covered here was all the stuff on GET, POST, PUT etc. etc., also JSON, z/OS Connect et al!

Db2 Hot topics from Progressive Insurance from Bob Vargo and Dustin Ratliff. They discussed the challenges of how to get SQL Data Insights up and running and then got into FTB and PROFILE usage again (I love PROFILEs, have I mentioned this before?)

Explain explained from Toine Michielse. Does what it says on the side of the can! He shows, and explains, all the available access paths so that everyone is „on the same page“ afterwards.

Bringing Db2 for z/OS-Based Applications Into the Modern Age from Robert Catterall where he showed the modern new way to access the data using REST services with plus and minus points of them. Then he went on to highlight the „new features“ in Db2 for z/OS like System and Business time or XML columns and tables and finished off with a review of the advantages that SQL PL and Native SQL Procedures can give you.

DB2 SQL – go beyond the usual – My current TOP 40 SQL tips, tricks, and opinions from Brian Laube where he discussed all of the tricks and secrets he has learned over the years. Very worthy of a good read!

That’s all folks! I did not even mention all of the LUW or the IMS ones – Feel free to look for them as well if you are interested.

As always, a fantastic conference and I am already looking forward to the next one in 2024!

TTFN,

Roy Boxwell

2023-08 Taking a dive into the bufferPOOL

This month I wish to chat about Db2 on z/OS BUFFERPOOLs and their misuse throughout the world.

One Size Fits All?

Bufferpool tuning tools have been available for decades, but I had the feeling that the usage has dropped off these days and the cut-and-paste generation has started to cause, shall we say, problems in the pool!

Oldies But Goldies

The standard set of rules *always* starts with „Thou shalt not pollute the pool!“

The idea here is very simple: Keep the Db2 Directory and Catalog apart from „user data“ – the access patterns and sizes for the Directory and Catalog are different than normal user data and you do *not* want to mix’n’match here!

Keep Indexes and Tablespaces Apart

Just like teenagers, keeping them apart can help a lot! The typical access patterns for indexes (especially compressed indexes) and user data are always different. These should very rarely share a pool!

Know Your Access Types!

Are you a sequential access or a random access type? The difference is important – Db2 tracks all the different access types, so it is not that hard to see whether or not sequential access is pushing out your index random access leaf pages, for example!

Sort??

Sort and work spaces should also go into their own pool as sort tends to be 100% sequential.

What About Prefetch Minimum Size??

To activate a good prefetch chain, your bufferpool must meet minimum size limits. Smaller than the minimum size and your prefetch usage goes horribly wrong.

PGFIX – Yes

This has been described as „the no brainer No. 1“ as Db2 basically *requires* enough memory for the BPs not to page, and so you can save a ton of CPU by setting PGFIX(YES) – Note that this is not same as setting PGSTEAL(NONE) !

LOB and XML Spaces

These are the ugly ducklings under the tablespace family tree and both should *not* be in any normal BP as the access methods for them are 100% different!

Check Again!

So now go and check your BUFFERPOOLs and see if you have broken any of the above seven BP commandments? I am 100% certain that you have…

Are You on the Same Page as Me?

If you have PAGE INs then that is normally, to quote IBM, sub-optimal. If the number of PAGE INs is greater than the BP size it is very, very bad indeed!

What About GROUP BUFFERPOOLS?

Always worth checking these and seeing if the Cross Invalidations is > 10% or if the storage counters are above zero. Also, check what your current RATIO is… Might be way too low or way too high!

Bufferpool Thresholds?

You do know your BP thresholds, don’t you?

Immediate write – 97.5% – Very very bad.

Data Management – 95% – Bad.

Prefetch disabled – 90% – Not good.

Then the Thresholds that You Can Set:

Sequential Steal threshold (VPSEQT) – 80% range 0 – 100. If zero then most, if not all, prefetch is switched off and no parallel prefetch is allowed.

Virtual Parallel Sequential threshold (VPPSEQT) – 50% range 0 – 100, zero means no parallel.

Deferred Write threshold (DWQT) 30% range 0 – 90.

Vertical Deferred Write threshold – 5% range 0 – 90 as a percentage, and if the first value is zero then the second value is absolute number of pages in the range 0 – 9999.

Sequential Steal

This is how much of the BP can be taken over by purely sequential data access pages. For SORT pools 90+ is fine. If you then see SYNC READ I/O going up slowly, lower back towards 80.

Deferred Write

The DWQT is for the complete bufferpool. If that percentage is hit, then an asynchnronous task is kicked off to write updated pages to disk, until it hits 10% less than this threshold. Now for some objects that is too large a number and can lead to flooding, so we also have the VDWQT which has the same control but at the object level. You specify how many pages per object can be updated before Db2 kicks off async writing.

Metrics …

In the beginning was the Hit Ratio but it is a bit of a red herring these days. Much better is to check the average page residency times. If the data is kicked out of the BP before 600 seconds it is probably time to do some changes! There are tons of other metrics but I will not go into the nitty gritty here!

Real World Results!

I asked a few of our customers do some -DISPLAY BUFFERPOOL commands and then send me the data. I then did an analysis of the data and was a little bit surpised at the results:

Management summary: Every customer has bufferpool problems, even those that swore everything was green at their site!

In the following graphics everything that does not have a green/white background is not good (Apart from the two Intensity heat columns where only the red ones are worth checking!)

Examples

Here you can see it is not that bad. The hit ratios are not good, (the negative Hit Ratio is caused by serious prefetch activity!) and the number of writes is below expectations, but the prefetch size is the big worry here! One good point is the near perfect VPSEQT compared to the calculated one. Very good!

The number of PAGE INs here is very bad but is caused, obviously, by the PAGEFIX(NO) defs.

The VDWQT per second rate is well above what it should be, prefetch size is very wrong and the Page Arrival rate is high!

The residency times are at both extremes here!

Here, there are way to many DWQT and VDWQT being hit per second.

And Finally

So what can you do? Well, you can contact me and I will tell you which commands to issue. Then I can send you back a PDF with the details above. Please note that I can only process the first ten requests! But I will allow five from EMEA and five from the USA to make the timezones a bit fairer!

Future Trends and Directions

We’re currently extending SQL WorkloadExpert with it’s Zowe front end, so that you then have the chance to fix things with a couple of clicks and even play around with simulated buffer pool sizing! Below I’m sharing a sneak preview:

and then drilling down:

Simulated?

I do hope that you are aware of the „simulated bufferpool“ feature and have at least looked at it? It is one of the best things in years to have happened to bufferpool tuning!

So whaddy’all think? Is it time to go back to the drawing board with Bufferpool tuning or are yours all 100% correct?

I would love to hear from you!

TTFN

Roy Boxwell